|Summary: Botnets are networks of infected computers controlled by hackers|
|Outcome: Information theft, computer malfunctions|
|Addressed by ICANN Policy: Y|
|Addressed by Legislation: Y|
|Related to: Phishing, Spam, Malware, Fast Flux Attacks, DDoS Attacks|
Botnet Attacks involve networks of infected computers controlled by a hacker or "botherder" remotely and without the consent of the computers' owners. These infected computers take orders from the botherder and can be used in complex cyberattacks, including but not limited to Fast Flux attacks where the controller uses the network to hide his or her location, Spam attacks, and Phishing attacks without the knowledge of the Internet user. The term botnet comes from the combination of robot and network. Sometimes botnets are referred to as zombie computers or zombie networks because they infect other computers and act without the knowledge of their owners. They can also be hard to detect and shut down once they are established. For example, when part of the Kelihos botnet was taken down, it reappeared within 4 months.
Botnets are considered by the Internet security community to be a major threat to general security and personal information. Individuals, however, may not be aware that their computers are infected, making botnets an insidious threat.
Botnet attacks negatively affect the Internet community and many personal users though identity theft, poor computer performance, spam, and malware.
- Botherders or controllers frequently target PCs without adequate security protection such as personal home computers with Internet access. Botherders can also create zombie computers by getting an Internet user to unintentionally download malware. According to the GNSO's Registration Abuse Polices Working Group (RAPWG) report, botnet controllers can use registered or unregistered domains to give infected computers instructions or updates. If the botnet had been communicating with a certain domain name and the name expires but then is re-registered, the botnet may become active again.
- According to a BBC news report, 5-10% of all computers are infected and act as part of a botnet. Estimates about the relative sizes of botnets vary, starting with botnets as small as a few hundred computers leading up to botnets that exceed 50,000 compromised computers. Some extensive botnets may have more than half a million infected computers.
- As stated in previous sections, botnets can be used in multiple ways that threaten Internet users. For example, botnets can relay information from individual computers back to the botherder by using keylogging software. This information, including passwords or credit card or bank account numbers, can then be used by the network controller. Botnets can also be used in Disbtrubed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks,  fast flux attacks, phishing attacks, spam campaigns, identity theft, clickfraud, and distributing malware. Botnets can also affect mobile devices and phones, and a Symantec report stated that a botnet infected mobile app has generated anywhere from $1,600 to $9,000 per day.
- In 2014, the FBI in collaboration with law enforcement officials from multiple countries "disrupted" the Gameover Zeus botnet, which has allegedly been responsible for $100 million in losses. This botnet is believed to comprise anywhere from 500,000 to 1 million computers. The operator of this botnet could face bank fraud, wire fraud, conspiracy, and computer hacking charges.
- The GNSO's RAPWG looked at the issue of malware and botnet attacks as they may utilize registered or unregistered domain names. However, some view botnets as outside the scope of ICANN policy.
- The 2013 Registry Agreement (RA), which all new gTLD applicants were required to sign, states that registries must require their registrars to include policies that prohibit registrants from activities like creating botnets. Additionally, registries are required to "periodically conduct a technical analysis to assess whether domains in the TLD are being used to perpetrate security threats" and to keep security files on threats and the remedial actions taken by the registries.
- Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA): hackers that use botnets can be tried under the CFAA, which prohibits the unauthorized access of computers.
- The proposed Internet Spyware (I-Spy) Prevention Act and Cybersecurity Enhancement Act, neither of which passed the Senate, could have potentially create harsher punishments for cyber crimes. In 2013, the EU approved new cyber-legislation that increases the culpability of botnet creators and sellers in addition to those that use them for criminal activities.
- Internet crimes, such as botnet attacks, are investigated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the FBI's cyber task force divisions. In 2007, the FBI working in conjunction with New Zealand authorities and the U.S. Secret Service caught and prosecuted 8 people involved in botnet attacks. The FBI's "Bot Roast" operations have "uncovered more than $20 million in economic loss and more than one million victim computers."
Awardees should actively guard against the creation of botnets as it harms the larger Internet ecosystem and often contributes to malicious or illegal behavior.
- Read Sophos Security Threat Report for 2014
- View Symantec's 2013 Internet Security Threat Report
- If you believe a computer is part of a botnet, file an Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) complaint
- View bots commonly used to create botnets
- Read Signs Your Computer May Be Part of a Botnet
- See tips about preventing botnets from infecting your computer
- Bots and Botnets—A Growing Threat, Symantec Corporation
- Botnet Attack Information, Kaspersky Lab
- Botnets, Shadowserver.org
- Botnets 101: What They Are and How to Avoid Them (June 5, 2013), Federal Bureau of Investigation
- Zombie botnets: Why some crime networks refuse to die by Mark Ward (January 20, 2014), BBC
- 2013 Internet Security Report, Vol. 18 (PDF), Symantec Corporation
- Security Threat Report 2014 (PDF), Sophos
- botnet (zombie army) by Margaret Rouse (February 2012), SearchSecurity.com
- Working Group Final Report; Submitted on May 29, 2010 (PDF), Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
- Lessons Learned (August 10, 2008), The Honeynet Project
- Uses of botnets (August 10, 2008), The Honeynet Project
- http://www.pcworld.com/article/2357820/law-enforcement-agencies-disrupt-gamover-zeus-botnet.html by Grant Gross (June 2, 2014) PCWorld
- View the Updated Registry Agreement (PDF), Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
- Botnet Bandit Sentenced In Federal Malware Case by Bill Singer (September 6, 2012), Forbes
- Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), Thomson Reuters
- EU approves stricter laws for punishing cyber crooks and botnet creators by Alastair Stevenson (July 5, 2013), v3.co.uk
- 'Bot Roast II' Nets 8 Individuals (November 29, 2007), Federal Bureau of Investigation